Reasoning for Bank Exams (Part 4)

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Critical Reasoning for Bank Recruitment Exams (Part 4)

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           Questions 1-2 are based on the following.
In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men; these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop.

  1. The argument above is based on
    1. another argument that contains circular reasoning
    2. an attempt to refute a generalization by means of an exceptional case
    3. an analogy between the past and the future
    4. an appeal to popular beliefs and values
    5. an attack on the character of the opposition.
Answer : C


  1. Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the evidence used to refute the conclusion above?
    1. Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.
    2. When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase.
    3. The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.
    4. If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women.
    5. The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.
Answer : E

  1. An electric-power company gained greater profits and provided electricity to consumers at lower rates per unit of electricity by building larger-capacity more efficient plants and by stimulating greater use of electricity within its area. To continue these financial trends, the company planned to replace an old plant by a plant with triple the capacity of its largest plant.
The company's plan as described above assumed each of the following EXCEPT:
    1. Demand for electricity within the company's area of service would increase in the future.
    2. Expenses would not rise beyond the level that could be compensated for by efficiency or volume of operation, or both.
    3. The planned plant would be sufficiently reliable in service to contribute a net financial benefit to the company as a whole.
    4. Safety measures to be instituted for the new plant would be the same as those for the plant it would replace.
    5. The tripling of capacity would not result in insuperable technological obstacles to efficiency.
Answer : D

  1. Of the countries that were the world's twenty largest exporters in 1953, four had the same share of total world exports in 1984 as in 1953. Theses countries can therefore serve as models for those countries that wish to keep their share of the global export trade stable over the years.
Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the suitability of those four countries as models in the sense described?
    1. Many countries wish to increase their share of world export trade, not just keep it stable.
    2. Many countries are less concerned with exports alone than with he balance between exports and imports.
    3. With respect to the mix of products each exports, the four countries are very different from each other.
    4. Of the four countries, two had a much larger, and two had a much smaller, share of total world exports in 1970 than in 1984.
    5. The exports of the four countries range from 15 percent to 75 percent of the total national output.
Answer : D

Questions 5-6are based on the following
Meteorologists say that if only they could design an accurate mathematical model of the atmosphere with all its complexities, they could forecast the weather with real precision. But this is an idle boast, immune to any evaluation, for any inadequate weather forecast would obviously be blamed on imperfections in the model.


  1. Which of the following, if true, could best be used as a basis for arguing against the author's position that the meteorologists' claim cannot be evaluated?
    1. Certain unusual configurations of data can serve as the basis for precise weather forecasts even though the exact causal mechanisms are not understood.
    2. Most significant gains in the accuracy of the relevant mathematical models are accompanied by clear gains in the precision of weather forecasts.
    3. Mathematical models of the meteorological aftermath of such catastrophic events as volcanic eruptions are beginning to be constructed.
    4. Modern weather forecasts for as much as a full day ahead are broadly correct about 80 percent of the time.
    5. Meteorologists readily concede that the accurate mathematical model they are talking about is not now in their power to construct.
Answer : B

  1. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the meteorologists' boast, aside from the doubt expressed in the passage above?
    1. The amount of energy that the Earth receives from the Sun is monitored closely and is known not to be constant.
    2. Volcanic eruptions, the combustion of fossil fuels, and several other processes that also cannot be quantified with any accuracy are known to have a significant and continuing impact on the constitution of the atmosphere.
    3. As current models of the atmosphere are improved, even small increments in complexity will mean large increases in the number of computers required for the representation of the models.
    4. Frequent and accurate data about the atmosphere collected at a large number of points both on and above the ground are a prerequisite for the construction of a good model of the atmosphere.
    5. With existing models of the atmosphere, large scale weather patterns can be predicted with greater accuracy than can relatively local weather patterns.
Answer : B

Questions 7-8 are based on the following
In the United States, the Postal Service has a monopoly on first-class mail, but much of what is sent first class could be transmitted electronically. Electronic transmittal operators argue that if the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it would have an unfair advantage, since its electronic transmission service could be subsidized from the profits of the monopoly.

  1. Which of the following, if each is true, would allay the electronic transmittal operators' fears of unfair competition?
    1. If the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it could not make a profit on first-class mail.
    2. If the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it would have a monopoly on that kind of service.
    3. Much of the material that is now sent by first-class mail could be delivered much faster by special package couriers, but is not sent that way because of cost.
    4. There is no economy of scale in electronic transmission-that is, the cost per transaction does not go down as more pieces of information are transmitted.
    5. Electronic transmission will never be cost-effective for material not sent by first-class mail such as newspapers and bulk mail.
Answer : A

  1. Which of the following questions can be answered on the basis of the information in the passage above?
    1. Is the Postal Service as efficient as privately owned electric transmission services?
    2. If private operators were allowed to operate first-class mail services, would they choose to do so?
    3. Do the electronic transmittal operators believe that the Postal Service makes a profit on first-class mail?
    4. Is the Postal Service prohibited from offering electronic transmission services ?
    5. Is the Postal Service expected to have a monopoly on electronic transmission?
Answer : C

  1. Lists of hospitals have been compiled showing which hospitals have patient death rates exceeding the national average. The data have been adjusted to allow for differences in the ages of patients.
Each of the following, if true, provides a good logical ground for hospitals to object to interpreting rank on these lists as one of the indices of the quality of hospital care EXCEPT:
    1. Rank order might indicate insignificant differences, rather than large differences, in numbers of patient deaths.
    2. Hospitals that keep patients longer are likely to have higher death rates than those that discharge patients earlier but do not record deaths of patients at home after discharge.
    3. Patients who are very old on admission to a hospital are less likely than younger patients to survive the same types of illnesses or surgical procedures.
    4. Some hospitals serve a larger proportion of low-income patients, who tend to be more seriously ill when admitted to a hospital.
    5. For-profit hospitals sometimes do not provide intensive-care units and other expensive services for very sick patients but refer or transfer such patients to other hospitals.
Answer : C

  1. Teresa: Manned spaceflight does not have a future, since it cannot compete economically with other means of accomplishing the objectives of spaceflight.
    Edward: No mode of human transportation has a better record of reliability: two accidents in twenty-five years. Thus manned spaceflight definitely has a positive future.


Which of the following is the best logical evaluation of Edward's argument as a response to Teresa's argument?
    1. It cites evidence that, if true, tends to disprove the evidence cited by Teresa in drawing her conclusion.
    2. It indicates a logical gap in the support that Teresa offers for her conclusion.
    3. It raises a consideration that outweighs the argument Teresa makes.
    4. It does not meet Teresa's point because it assumes that there is no serious impediment to transporting people into space, but this was the issue raised by Teresa.
    5. It fails to respond to Teresa's argument because it does not address the fundamental issue of whether space activities should have priority over other claims on the national budget.
Answer : D

  1. Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
    Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers' hypothesis?
    1. The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
    2. The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
    3. Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
    4. Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
    5. No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
Answer : A

  1. The following proposal to amend the bylaws of an organization was circulated to its members for comment.
    When more than one nominee is to be named for an office, prospective nominees must consent to nomination and before giving such consent must be told who the other nominees will be.
Which of the following comments concerning the logic of the proposal is accurate if it cannot be known who the actual nominees are until prospective nominees have given their consent to be nominated?
    1. The proposal would make it possible for each of several nominees for an office to be aware of who all of the other nominees are.
    2. The proposal would widen the choice available to those choosing among the nominees.
    3. If there are several prospective nominees, the proposal would deny the last nominee equal treatment with the first.
    4. The proposal would enable a prospective nominee to withdraw from competition with a specific person without making that withdrawal known.
    5. If there is more than one prospective nominee, the proposal would make it impossible for anyone to become a nominee.
Answer : E

  1. Which of the following best completes the passage below?
In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest.
However, the survey may underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because
    1. some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest
    2. some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest
    3. some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest
    4. some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly
    5. some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest
Answer : A

  1. Which of the following, if true, most serinously weakens the conclusion that cigarette companies could have dropped advertising without suffering economically?
    1. Cigarette advertisements provide a major proportion of total advertising revenue for numerous magazines.
    2. Cigarette promotion serves to attract first-time smokers to replace those people who have stopped smoking.
    3. There exists no research conclusively demon-strating that increases in cigarette advertising are related to increases in smoking.
    4. Advertising is so firmly established as a major business activity of cigarette manufacturers that they would be unlikely to drop it.
    5. Brand loyalty is typically not very strong among those who smoke inexpensive cigarettes.
Answer : B

Questions 15-16 are based on the following.
The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana.


  1. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage?
    1. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average Louisianian's life.
    2. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate.
    3. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii's current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors.
    4. Thirty percent of all Louisianians can expect to live longer than 77 years.
    5. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United States.
Answer : C

  1. Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the passage?
    1. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised downward
    2. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana
    3. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianians who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years.
    4. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianians than for Hawaiians.
    5. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii.
Answer : B

  1. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the claims that would be made.
Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X's losses on the policies?
    1. Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years
    2. Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children
    3. Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost
    4. Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies
    5. Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services
Answer : A

  1. A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children's future college tuition at current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state's public colleges in which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their children's college education.
Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents not to participate in the program?
    1. The parents are unsure about which pubic college in the state the child will attend.
    2. The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the pubic colleges when the child enrolls.
    3. The annual cost of tuition at the state's pubic colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the annual increase in the cost of living
    4. Some of the state's public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year.
    5. The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state's public colleges.
Answer : B

  1. Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay less for the coupons than they would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This marketing of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo.
To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the
    1. number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year
    2. use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families
    3. days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday
    4. amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued
    5. number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons
Answer : B

  1. The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows only on the front windshield, was turned on full force.


Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which the ice melted?
    1. The side windows had no ice condensation on them.
    2. Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did the ice on the front windshield.
    3. The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window increases.
    4. The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the rest of the car.
    5. The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces of the driver and passengers, is on.
Answer : B


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